Chaenogaleus macrostoma | UAE National Red List of Marine Species: Reef-building corals, cartilaginous fishes and select bony fishes

Chaenogaleus macrostoma | (Bleeker, 1852)
Countries in Assessment
United Arab Emirates
Country ISO code(s)
Does the assessment cover a marine EEZ area(s)?
Scope (Assessment)
Taxonomic Group
Taxonomic Group Level 2
Assessed taxon level
Taxon distribution as listed in assessment
The Hooktooth Shark occurs throughout UAE waters. Globally, it is wide-ranging but patchily distributed in the Indo-West Pacific.
Habitats and Ecology
Ecological system type
Terrestrial system
Freshwater system
Marine system
Habitat details as listed in assessment
The Hooktooth Shark is found inshore on continental and insular shelves to depths of at least 160 m (Weigmann 2016). This species grows to a maximum size of around 93 cm total length (TL) with males maturing at around 72 cm TL and females at least 83 cm TL (Moore et al. 2012, Moore and Pierce 2013, Jabado et al. 2016). It is thought to be a viviparous species giving birth to four young per litter with pups born at ~20 cm TL. Henderson et al. (2004) provided preliminary ageing data that suggested the maximum age was 11 years and maturity at 5 or 6 years. This suggests a generation length of 8 years.
Is there a map available in assessment?
Assessed status
Asessment status in full
Assessment status abreviation
Assessment status criteria
Assessment rationale/justification
The Hooktooth Shark occurs throughout UAE coastal waters, and may be uncommon there. Although there are limited data on its status, other shark species in the Arabian Gulf have undergone significant declines due to exploitation. It is caught in gill net, line and trawl fisheries in the Arabian Sea region, although it is never abundant. It is especially susceptible to exploitation (target and bycatch) in many largely unregulated gill net, longline and trawl fisheries that operate within its range outside and surrounding UAE waters. Some management measures are now in place in the Arabian Sea region, although domestic fisheries are likely to continue. Though data specifically from the UAE are not available, individuals in the UAE are a component of a larger, interconnected and migratory population that occurs broadly in the north-western Indian Ocean. It is inferred that declines reported in the Arabian Sea region are representative of its status in the UAE. Based on recorded levels of exploitation and decline in habitat quality, it is suspected to have declined by 30-50% over the past three generation lengths, or about 24 years. It is listed as Vulnerable A2cd.
About the assessment
Assessment year
Assessors/contributors/reviewers listed
UAE National Red List Workshop
Affliation of assessor(s)/contributors/reviewers listed on assessment
Assessor affiliation specific
Criteria system
Criteria system specifics
IUCN v3.1
Criteria system used
Criteria Citation
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. iv + 32pp pp. And IUCN. 2012. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. iii + 41pp.
Endemic to region
Endemism Notes
Is an endemic?: Not_assigned
Threats listed in assessment
In the UAE, sharks have been impacted by targeted commercial fisheries until 2014 when a ban on export of sharks was imposed (Ministry of Climate Change and Environment). Sharks continue to be impacted by artisanal and bycatch fisheries (Annual Fisheries Statistical Report for Abu Dhabi Emirate 2001-2018), though catch data are not species-specific. This species is impacted by bycatch fisheries that are active elsewhere in its range. Marine habitats in the Gulf are experiencing high levels of disturbance and quickly deteriorating due to major impacts from development activities (including dredging and reclamation), desalination plants, industrial activities, habitat destruction through the removal of shallow productive areas and major shipping lanes (Sheppard et al. 2010).
Conservation Measures

Conservation measures:
Conservation measures notes:
Required conservation measures:

Scientific Name Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Chaenogaleus macrostoma Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Carcharhiniformes Hemigaleidae Chaenogaleus