Aetomylaeus milvus | UAE National Red List of Marine Species: Reef-building corals, cartilaginous fishes and select bony fishes

Aetomylaeus milvus | (Valenciennes, 1841)
Countries in Assessment
United Arab Emirates
Country ISO code(s)
Does the assessment cover a marine EEZ area(s)?
Scope (Assessment)
Taxonomic Group
Taxonomic Group Level 2
Assessed taxon level
Taxonomic Notes
Aetomylaeus milvus is considered to be distinct from A. maculatus (Last et al. 2016).
Taxon distribution as listed in assessment
The Ocellate Eagle Ray occurs throughout UAE waters. It is restricted to the Arabian Sea region from Oman to India (Gujarat), including the Arabian Gulf (Last et al. 2016). Until recently, this species was confused with the Mottled Eagle Ray (A. maculatus) and possibly the Ornate Eagle Ray (A. vespertilio). Further research is needed to confirm its full distribution.
Habitats and Ecology
Ecological system type
Terrestrial system
Freshwater system
Marine system
Habitat details as listed in assessment
The biology of the Ocellate Eagle Ray is poorly known, but it likely inhabits inshore areas over soft bottoms to depths of 90 m (Last et al. 2016, Weigmann 2016). This eagle ray displays aggregating behaviour. It reaches a maximum size of 123 cm disc width (DW), and males mature at 50 cm DW (R.W. Jabado pers. comm. 09/02/2017). Female maturity and size at birth are unknown. The species is suspected to have low fecundity similar to other eagle rays, which bear litters of up to four offspring (Compagno and Last 1999, Last and Stevens 2009). As there is no information on this species' maximum age and age at maturity, generation length was inferred as ~15 years based on data for the Bat Ray (Myliobatis californicus) which are reported to have a maximum age of 24 years and an age at maturity of five years (Martin and Cailliet 1988). However, it is noted that the Ocellate Eagle Ray reaches a smaller maximum size than this species.
Is there a map available in assessment?
Assessed status
Asessment status in full
Assessment status abreviation
Assessment status criteria
Assessment rationale/justification
The Ocellate Eagle Ray occurs throughout UAE inshore waters. Little is known on the population of this species in UAE waters. It is taken as bycatch in trawl and gill net fisheries, and fishing effort is intense and increasing in much of the Arabian Sea region. The loss and degradation of coastal habitats in the Gulf is a significant concern for inshore species such as this. It is especially susceptible to exploitation (target and bycatch) in many largely unregulated gill net, longline and trawl fisheries that operate within its range outside and surrounding UAE waters. Some management measures are now in place in the Arabian Sea region, although domestic fisheries are likely to continue. Though data specifically from the UAE are not available, individuals in the UAE are a component of a larger, interconnected and migratory population that occurs broadly in the north-western Indian Ocean. It is inferred that declines reported in the Arabian Sea region are representative of its status in the UAE. Based on recorded levels of exploitation and decline in habitat quality, it is suspected to have declined by at least 50% over the past three generation lengths, or about 45 years. It is listed as Endangered A2cd.
About the assessment
Assessment year
Assessors/contributors/reviewers listed
UAE National Red List Workshop
Affliation of assessor(s)/contributors/reviewers listed on assessment
Assessor affiliation specific
Criteria system
Criteria system specifics
IUCN v3.1
Criteria system used
Criteria Citation
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. iv + 32pp pp. And IUCN. 2012. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. iii + 41pp.
Endemic to region
Endemism Notes
Is an endemic?: Not_assigned
Threats listed in assessment
This species is impacted by fisheries in the UAE and forms a relatively large portion of all landed batoids. It is impacted by bycatch fisheries that are active elsewhere in its range as well. Marine habitats in the Gulf are experiencing high levels of disturbance and quickly deteriorating due to major impacts from development activities (including dredging and reclamation), desalination plants, industrial activities, habitat destruction through the removal of shallow productive areas and major shipping lanes (Sheppard et al. 2010).
Conservation Measures

Conservation measures:
Conservation measures notes:
Required conservation measures:

Further information
This is the first assessment for this species.
Scientific Name Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Aetomylaeus milvus Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Myliobatiformes Myliobatidae Aetomylaeus