Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos | UAE National Red List of Marine Species: Reef-building corals, cartilaginous fishes and select bony fishes

Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos | (Bleeker, 1856)
Countries in Assessment
United Arab Emirates
Country ISO code(s)
Does the assessment cover a marine EEZ area(s)?
Scope (Assessment)
Taxonomic Group
Taxonomic Group Level 2
Assessed taxon level
Taxon distribution as listed in assessment
The Grey Reef Shark occurs throughout UAE waters. Globally, it is widespread in the tropical Indo-West and Central Pacific (Last and Stevens 2009).
Habitats and Ecology
Ecological system type
Terrestrial system
Freshwater system
Marine system
Habitat details as listed in assessment
The Grey Reef Shark is found in clear tropical waters often from 10 m to around 140 m and is common around coral reefs, particularly near drop-offs and fringing reefs. It attains a maximum size of 255 cm total length (TL). Males mature at 110-145 cm TL; females at about 120-142 cm TL (Wetherbee et al. 1997, Ebert et al. 2013) at around seven years. Litters are small with up to six pups measuring 48-49 cm TL (Compagno 1984, Anderson and Ahmed 1993, Last and Stevens 1994, Wetherbee et al. 1997). Smart et al. (2016) provide age data from Australia where the females mature at 9 years and reach a maximum age of at least 15 years. A study conducted on an unfished population of this species reported an estimated length at maturity of 116.7-“123.2 cm TL for males and a maximum lifespan of 18.1 years for both sexes, and an annual survival rate of 0.74 year<sup>-1</sup> (Bradley et al. 2017). When applying an age at first reproduction of 9 years and longevity of 18 years, its estimated generation length is 13.5 years based on the following equation recommended by the IUCN Red List methods: Age at first reproduction + (Age at last reproduction -“ age at first reproduction)/2.
Is there a map available in assessment?
Assessed status
Asessment status in full
Assessment status abreviation
Assessment status criteria
Assessment rationale/justification
The Grey Reef Shark occurs throughout UAE inshore waters, often near coral reefs. Little specific data are available for this species in the UAE. It is apparently highly migratory, and has slow life history characteristics including low fecundity and a low annual rate of population increase. Considering this, the species has a low capacity to recover from even moderate levels of exploitation. It is especially susceptible to exploitation (target and bycatch) in many largely unregulated gill net fisheries that operate within its range outside and surrounding UAE waters. In addition, coral reef loss and degradation have been severe across the UAE. Some management measures are now in place in the Arabian Sea region, although domestic fisheries are likely to continue. Though data specifically from the UAE are not available, individuals in the UAE are a component of a larger, interconnected and migratory population that occurs broadly in the north-western Indian Ocean. It is inferred that declines reported in the Arabian Sea region are representative of its status in the UAE. This species faces intense fishing pressures throughout the Arabian Sea. Based on recorded levels of exploitation and decline in habitat quality, it is suspected to have declined by 50-80% over the past three generation lengths, or about 36 years. It is listed as Endangered A2cd.
About the assessment
Assessment year
Assessors/contributors/reviewers listed
UAE National Red List Workshop
Affliation of assessor(s)/contributors/reviewers listed on assessment
Assessor affiliation specific
Criteria system
Criteria system specifics
IUCN v3.1
Criteria system used
Criteria Citation
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK. iv + 32pp pp. And IUCN. 2012. Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels: Version 4.0. Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK: IUCN. iii + 41pp.
Endemic to region
Endemism Notes
Is an endemic?: Not_assigned
Threats listed in assessment
Information pertaining to threats specific to the UAE are unavailable. This species is impacted by target (for fins and their valuable meat) and bycatch fisheries that are active elsewhere in its range. Marine habitats in the region have experienced high levels of disturbance and are quickly deteriorating due to major impacts from development activities (Sheppard et al. 2010). Corals in the UAE and Arabian Gulf have severely declined due to the increasing frequency of mass bleaching events caused by rising water temperatures, which is a consequence of climate change, as well as pervasive coastal development (Riegl et al. 2018, Burt et al. 2019).
Conservation Measures

Conservation measures:
Conservation measures notes:
Required conservation measures:

Scientific Name Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos Animalia Chordata Chondrichthyes Carcharhiniformes Carcharhinidae Carcharhinus